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    Ultrasound Technique

    The basic principles of the ultrasound technique.

    Ultrasound Technique
    Radiology Expert
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    Ultrasound uses sound waves. They are reflected, deflected or absorbed in the body. The reflected sound waves produce the ultrasound image. The more sound waves are reflected, the more hyperechogenic (= whiter) the tissue is imaged. With reduced reflection, the image will be more hypoechogenic, and anechogenic if there is no reflection (= black). 
    Both the speed of sound through the tissue and tissue density impact the quality of the ultrasound image. High-density tissue generates multiple echo reflections (e.g. bone/calcareous structures), producing hyperechogenic images. Fluid reflects no sound waves and therefore is anechogenic (= black). Soft tissue (e.g. organs) is somewhere between hyperechogenic and anechogenic. Isoechogenic is when the tissue has the same echogenicity as the surrounding tissue (fig. 4/5).  

    Echogenicity with corresponding terms.
    Figure 4. Echogenicity with corresponding terms.


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    Literature: sources and author


    drs. A. van der Plas (MSK radiologist Maastricht UMC+)

    With special thanks to:
    drs. F.Y. Jiang (radiologist Haga Ziekenhuis, Den Haag)


    drs. A. van der Plas (MSK radiologist Maastricht UMC+)


    • B. Block. Abdominal Ultrasound: Step by Step (2004).
    • W.D. Middleton et al. The Requisites – Ultrasound (2004).


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