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    Ionizing Radiation

    Practical information about ionizing radiation produced by X-ray and CT examinations.

    Ionizing Radiation
    Radiology Expert
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    Ionizing Radiation - Introduction

    What do you know about the dangers of (ionizing) radiation caused X-ray and CT examinations? How harmful are X-ray/CT examinations for pregnant women? What is the chance of developing cancer? Read all about it in this lecture.
    Some of the key topics are dose limit, natural background radiation and deterministic/stochastic effects


    • Ionizing radiation
    • Effective dose
    • Artificial radiation
    • Natural background radiation
    • Deterministic / stochastic effects
    • Dose limit
    • Radiation protection
    Ionizing Radiation


    Learn everything about Ionizing Radiation

    Buy a single module for €2,50 or all modules for €25 per year.
    Literature: sources and author

    Text & Illustrations

    drs. A. van der Plas, MSK radiologist Maastricht UMC+

    • United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation (2008)
    • Bethesda. MD. Ionizing radiation exposure of the population of the United States. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. 2009,  NCRP No. 160.
    • Padole A, Ali Khawaja RD et al. CT Radiation Dose and Iterative Reconstruction Techniques. AJR Am J Roentgenol. (2015)
    • Mettler FA Jr, Huda W et al. Effective doses in radiology and diagnostic nuclear medicine: a catalog. Radiology (2008)
    • Brenner DJ, Elliston CD et al. Estimated Risks of Radiation-Induced Fatal Cancer from Pediatric CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. (2001)
    • M. Prokop; Spiral and Multislice Computed Tomography of the body (2003)
    • Ghiassi-nejadd M, Mortazavi SM et al. Very high background radiation areas of Ramsar Iran: preliminary biological studies. Health Phys. (2002)
    • RIVM – Dossier Stralingsbelasting in Nederland.
    • Rehani MM. Am Confused About the Cancer Risks Associated With CT: How Can We Summarize What Is Currently Known? AJR Am J Roentgenol. (2015)
    • Kleinman PL, Strauss KJ et al. Patient Size Measured on CT Images as a Function of Age at a Tertiary Care Children’s Hospital. AJR Am J Roentgenol. (2010)
    • Gezondheidsraad. Risico’s van blootstelling aan ioniserende straling. Den Haag: Gezondheidsraad, 2007 (publicatienr. 2007/03)
    • Aliyu AS, Ramli AT. The world’s high background natural radiation areas (HBNRAs) revisited: A broad overview of the dosimetric, epidemiological and radiobiological issues. Radiation Measurements (2015)
    • Gordic S, Morsbach F et al. Ultralow-dose chest computed tomography for pulmonary nodule detection: first performance evaluation of single energy scanning with spectral shaping. Invest Radiol. (2014)
    • Kleiverda G, van Tienhoven G. Bestraling tijdens de zwangerschap: denk nooit nooit. Ned Tijdschr Oncol (2007)
    • Berlin SC, Weinert DM et al. Successful Dose Reduction Using Reduced Tube Voltage With Hybrid Iterative Reconstruction in Pediatric Abdominal CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. (2015)
    • Mahesh M. NCRP Report Number 160: its significance to medical imaging. J Am Coll Radiol. (2009)
    • Bethesda, Md. Ionizing radiation exposure of the population of the United States. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (2009)
    • Cira-Bielac O, Rehani MM et al. Risk for radiation-induced cataract for staff in interventional cardiology: is there reason for concern? Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. (2010)
    • Rajabi AB, Noohi F et al. Ionizing Radiation-Induced Cataract in Interventional Cardiology Staff. Res Cardiovasc Med. (2015)


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